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          四川學位英語考試語法復習重點

            連詞的辨析

            *that:可引導同位語從句、表語從句、主語從句、賓語從句等;that在這些從句中無實際含義,也不擔任任何成分。

            *So+形容詞/副詞that…such+(冠詞或形容詞)名詞that,表示如此…以至于。

            *what:可引導名詞性從句,并在從句中擔任主語、賓語等。

            *wheher…or…/whether or no…是否…,if則無此用法。

            *by加表示過去的時間,則主句用過去完成時;加現在,則主句用現在完成時;加將來時間,則主句用將來完成時。

            *時間狀語,條件狀語還有某些讓步狀語中,不出現將來時,要用現在式表示將來時。

            *分辨一下表示因和果的連詞,表示轉折的連詞,容易出選擇題。

            現在分詞作狀語

            A、在某些動詞或詞組后常用現在分詞作狀語,對前面內容進行補充。

            B、還可表示時間狀語。有時要用完成形式,表示動作已經在主句動作前先完成。

            C、現在分詞短語還可作原因狀語。

            D、有時還可表示伴隨情況或方式。

            E、注意在一些動詞短語中to為介詞,后加名詞或動名詞。

            反意疑問句

            英語中,反意疑問句是由陳述句和附在其后的附加疑問句組成。其中附加疑問句是對陳述句所說的事實   或觀點提出疑問,起證實作用,一般用于證實說話者所說的事實或觀點??梢杂腥c,第一,句子本身含有否定意義的時候,比如seldom后面用肯定形式的反問。第二,考察祈使句的反問,對陳述部分是肯定句的祈使句。第三,I think,I believe,I suppose等表示主觀看法的句子,其反意疑問句由后面的賓語從句相對應。

            句子結構:

            1.陳述部分肯定式+疑問部分否定式可記為前肯后否定.

            They work hard, don’t they?

            2.陳述部分否定式+疑問部分肯定式可記為前否后肯定.

            You didn’t go, did you?

            句子類型:一種是反義的附加疑問句,一種是非反義的附加疑問句。

            簡單來說,就是“前肯后否”或“前否后肯”。

            反義疑問句陳述部分用降調,問句部分可升可降。提問者對陳述部分把握較大時,問句部分用降調;反之用升調。

            省略句型

            1. 省略句的定義

            省略是為了避免重復、突出新信息并使上下代緊密連接的一種語法修辭手段。省略在語言中,尤其在對話中,是一種十分普遍的現象。

            2. 小品詞的省略

            ( 1 )省略介詞

            He spent four hours (in) going over his lessons. 他花了四個小時復習功課。

            I ‘ ve studied Eng1ish (for) five years. 我已學五年英語了。

            ( 2 )省略連詞 that

            I believe (that) you will succeed . 我相信你們會成功的。

            It ‘ s a pity (that) he ‘ s leaving. 他要走,真遺憾。

            I ‘ m sure (that) she will help you. 我肯定她會幫你的。

            注:在賓語從句中,當有兩個及以上并列從句時,第一個that可省,以后的均不可省。

            ( 3 )省略關系代詞

            I ‘ ll give you all (that) I have. 我要把我所有的一切都給你。

            He read the book (which) I got yesterday. 他看過我昨天買的書了。

            3. 句子成分的省略

            ( 1 )省略主語

            Beg your pardon. (我)請你原諒。( Beg 前省略了主語 I )

            Take care! 當心!( Take 前省略了主語 you )

            Looks as if it will rain. 看起來象要下雨。( Looks 前省略了主語 it )

            ( 2 )省略謂語

            Who next? 該誰了?( Who 后面省略了謂語 comes )

            The river was deep and the ice thin. ( ice 后面省略了 was )

            We ‘ ll do the best we can. 我們將盡力而為。( can 后面省略了動詞 do )

            ( 3 )省略表語

            Are you ready? Yes, I am. 你準備好了嗎? 我準備好了。( am 后面省略了 ready )

            He was a lover of sports as he had been in his youth. 他還是象年輕時那樣,是一位運動愛好者。( had been 后面省略了 a lover of sports )

            ( 4 )省略賓語

            Let ‘ s do the dishes. I ‘ ll wash and you ‘ ll dry. 讓我們洗碗吧,我來洗,你來揩干。( wash 和 dry 后面省略了賓語 dishes )

            ( 5 )省略定語

            He spent part of the money, and the rest he saved. 那錢他花了部分,其余的他都存了起來。( the rest 后面省略了定語 of the money )

            ( 6 )省略狀語

            He was not hurt. Strange! 他沒有受傷,真奇怪!( Strange 前面省略了狀語 how )

            難點釋疑篇

            1. 省略句可同時省掉句子幾個成份

            What exciting news! (= What exciting news it is!) 多么令人激動的消息啊!

            Pity he ‘ s failed. (= It is a pity that he ‘ s failed.) 很遺憾,他失敗了。

            I like him more than her. (= I like him more than I like her.) 我喜歡他更甚于喜歡她。

            2. 英語中有一些固定的省略結構:

            a) 在以 if, when, though, as if (好像)等連詞引導的從句中,如從句中的主要動詞是 be ,常將主語和動詞 be 省略。

            If necessary, we shall send a telegram home. 如有必要,我們就往家里打電報。

            Whenever possible, he will come to my help. 他一有可能就來幫助我。

            While cycling, don ‘ t forget the traffic lights. 騎車時,不要忘記看紅綠燈。

            b) 由固定詞組引導的疑問句:

            What about having a game of chess? 下盤棋怎么樣?

            How come they left you alone here? 他們怎么會把你一人留在這里呢?

            What if it ‘ s raining? 如果天下雨怎么辦?

            Why not try again? 為什么不再試試呢?

            c) 在口語中,為了避免重復,不定式可以省去和句子前部重復的動詞原形而只留下不定式符號 to 。

            He may leave if he wishes to. 他可以走,如果他愿意的話。

            Don ‘ t go till I tell you to. 等我叫你走你再走。

            3. 被省略的部分一般可以在句子中補上,但有時省略結構已經定型,如果把省略部分補上,反而不合乎習慣。

            He is taller than I am. 他比我高。( am 之后省略 tall ,補上不合習慣)

            No parking. 禁止停車。(告示用語 = No parking is allowed here. )

            有一些習慣表達很難補上所省略的部分:

            Not at all. 不用謝。

            No matter. 不要緊。

            Thanks. 謝謝。

            主謂一致

            在英語句子里,謂語受主語支配,其動詞必須和主語在人稱和數上保持一致,這就叫主謂一致。尋其規律,大致可歸納為三個原則,即語法一致、邏輯意義一致和就近一致原則。

            一、語法一致原則

            語法上一致就是謂語動詞和主語在單、復數形式上保持一致。

            1. 以單數名詞或代詞、動詞不定式短語、動名詞短語或從句作主語時,謂語動詞一般用單數形式;主語為復數時,謂語動詞用復數形式。如:His father is working on the farm. / To study English well is not easy. / What he said is very important for us all. / The children were in the classroom two hours ago. / Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes.

            注意:由what引導的主語從句,后面的謂語動詞多數情況用單數形式,但若表語是復數或what從句是一個帶有復數意義的并列結構時,主句的謂語動詞用復數形式。如:What I bought were three English books. / What I say and do is (are) helpful to you.

            2. 由連接詞and或both …… and連接起來的合成主語后面,要用復數形式的謂語動詞。如:Lucy and Lily are twins. / She and I are classmates. / The boy and the girl were surprised when they heard the news. / Both she and he are Young Pioneers.

            注意:(1)若and所連接的兩個詞是指同一個人或物時,它后面的謂語動詞就應用單數形式。如:The writer and artist has come. (2)由and連接的并列單數主語前如果分別有no, each, every more than a (an) , many a (an)修飾時,其謂語動詞要用單數形式。如:Every student and every teacher was in the room. / No boy and no girl likes it.

            3. 主語為單數名詞或代詞,盡管后面跟有with, together with, except, but, like, as well as, rather than, more than, no less than, besides, including等引起的短語,謂語動詞仍用單數形式;若主語為復數,謂語用復數形式。如:Mr. Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China. / Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground. / She, like you and Tom, is very tall.

            4. either, neither, each, every 或no +單數名詞和由some, any, no, every構成的復合不定代詞,都作單數看待。如:Each of us has a new book. / Everything around us is matter.

            注意:(1)在口語中當either或neither后跟有“of+復數名詞(或代詞)”作主語時,其謂語動詞也可用復數。如:Neither of the texts is (are) interesting. (2)若none of后面的名詞是不可數名詞,它的謂語動詞就要用單數;若它后面的名詞是復數,它的謂語動詞用單數或復數都可以。如:None of us has (have) been to America.

            5. 在定語從句時,關系代詞that, who, which等作主語時,其謂語動詞的數應與句中先行詞的數一致。如:He is one of my friends who are working hard. / He is the only one of my friends who is working hard.

            6. 如果集體名詞指的是整個集體,它的謂語動詞用單數;如果它指集體的成員,其謂語動詞就用復數形式。這些詞有family, class, crowd, committee, population, audience等。如:Class Four is on the third floor. / Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor.

            注意:people, police, cattle等名詞一般都用作復數。如:The police are looking for the lost child.

            7. 由“a lot of, lots of, plenty of, the rest of, the majority of + 名詞”構成的短語以及由“分數或百分數+名詞”構成的短語作主語,其謂語動詞的數要根據短語中后面名詞的數而定。如:There are a lot of people in the classroom. / The rest of the lecture is wonderful. / 50% of the students in our class are girls.

            注意:a number of“許多”,作定語修飾復數名詞,謂語用復數;the number of“……的數量”,主語是number,謂語用單數。

            8. 在倒裝句中,謂語動詞的數應與其后的主語一致。如:There comes the bus. / On the wall are many pictures. / Such is the result. / Such are the facts.

            二、邏輯意義一致原則

            邏輯意義一致就是謂語動詞的數必須和主語的意義一致(因有時主語形式為單數,但意義為復數;有時形式為復數,但意義為單數)。

            1. what, who, which, any, more, all等代詞可以是單數,也可是復數,主要靠意思來決定。如:Which is your bag? / Which are your bags? / All is going well. / All have gone to Beijing.

            2. 表示“時間、重量、長度、價值”等的名詞的復數作主語時,謂語動詞通常用單數形式,這是由于作主語的名詞在概念上是一個整體,如:Thirty minutes is enough for the work.

            3. 若英語是書名、片名、格言、劇名、報名、國名等的復數形式,其謂語動詞通常用單數形式。如:“The Arabian Nights” is an interesting story-book.

            4. 表數量的短語“one and a half”后接復數名詞作主語時,其謂語動詞可用單數形式(也可用復數。如:One and a half apples is (are) left on the table.

            5. 算式中表示數目(字)的主語通常作單數看待,其謂語動詞采用單數形式。如:Twelve plus eight is twenty. / Fifty-six divided by eight is seven.

            6. 一些學科名詞是以 –ics 結尾,如:mathematics, politics, physics 以及news, works等,都屬于形式上是復數的名詞,實際意義為單數名詞,它們作主語時,其謂語動詞要用單數形式。如:The paper works was built in 1990. / I think physics isn‘t easy to study.

            7. trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes, 等詞作主語時,謂語用復數,但如果這些名詞前有a (the) pair of等量詞修飾時,謂語動詞用單數。如:My glasses are broken. / The pair of shoes under the bed is his.

            8. “定冠詞the + 形容詞或分詞”,表示某一類人時,動詞用復數。

            三、就近一致原則

            在英語句子中,有時謂語動詞的人稱和數與最近的主語保持一致。

            1. 當兩個主語由either …… or, neither …… nor, whether …… or ……, not only …… but also連接時,謂語動詞和鄰近的主語一致。如:Either the teacher or the students are our friends. / Neither they nor he is wholly right. / Is neither he nor they wholly right?

            2. there be句型be動詞單復數取決于其后的主語。如果其后是由and連接的兩個主語,則應與靠近的那個主語保持一致。如:There are two chairs and a desk in the room.

            注意:Here引導的句子用法同上。

          定語從句

            定語從句是由關系代詞和關系副詞引導的從句,其作用是作定語修飾主句的某個成分,定語從句分為限定性和非限定性從句兩種。狀語從句分為時間狀語從句,結果狀語從句,讓步狀語從句,原因狀語從句,條件狀語從句以及行為方式狀語從句。名詞從句包括主語從句,賓語從句,表語從句和同位語從句及there be句型。

            一、 限定性定語從句

            1. that即可代表事物也可代表人,which代表事物;它們在從句中作主語或賓語,that在從句中作賓語時??墒÷躁P系詞,which在從句中作賓語則不能省略。而且,如果which在從句中作“不及物動詞+介詞”的介詞的賓語,注意介詞不要丟掉,而且介詞總是放在關系代詞which的前邊,但有的則放在它原來的位置

            2. which作賓語時,根據先行詞與定語從句之間的語義關系,先行詞與which之間的介詞不能丟

            3. 代表物時多用which,但在帶有下列詞的句子中用that而不用which,這些詞包括all, anything, much等,這時的that常被省略

            4. who和whom引導的從句用來修飾人,分別作從句中的主語和賓語,whom作賓語時,要注意它可以作動詞的賓語也可以作介詞的賓語

            5. where是關系副詞,用來表示地點的定語從句

            6. when引導定語從句表示時間

            〔注〕值得一提的是,表示時間“time"一詞的定語從句只用when引導,有時不用任何關系代詞,當然也不用that引導

            By the time you arrive in London, we will have stayed there for two weeks.

            I still remember the first time I met her.

            Each time he goes to besiness trip, he brings a lot of living necessities, such as towers, soap, toothbrush etc.

            7. whose是關系代詞,修飾名詞作定語,相當于所修飾成分的前置所有格

            8. 當從句的邏輯主語是some, any, no, somebody, anybody, nobody, something, anything, everything或nothing時,常用there is來引導

            二、非限定性定語從句:非限定性定語從句的作用是對所修飾的成分作進一步說明,通常和主句間用逗號隔開,將從句拿掉后其他部分仍可成立

            1. which引導的非限定性定語從句來說明前面整個句子的情況或主句的某一部分

            2. 在引導限定性定語從句時,that有時相當于in which, at which, for which或at which

            Attitudes towards daydreaming are changing in much the same way that(in which) attitudes towards night dreaming have changed. 人們對白日做夢的態度正在改變,這與人們對夜間做夢的看法的變化有非常相似之處。

            I like the music for the very reason that(for which) he dislike it. 我出于某種原因喜歡這種音樂,而他恰恰與我相反。

            We arrived the day that(on which) they left. 剛好我們到的那天他們走了。

            3. 有時as也可用作關系代詞

            4. 在非限定性定語從句中,不能用that,而用who, whom代表人,用which代表事物

          倒裝句

            一、 倒裝句之全部倒裝

            全部倒裝是只將句子中的謂語動詞全部置于主語之前。此結構通常只用與一般現在時和 一般過去時。常見的結構有:

            1)here, there, now, then, thus等副詞置于句首, 謂語動詞常用be, come, go, lie, run.

            There goes the bell.

            Then came the chairman.

            Here is your letter.

            2)表示運動方向的副詞或地點狀語置于句首,謂語表示運動的動詞。

            Out rushed a missile from under the bomber.

            Ahead sat an old woman.

            注意:上述全部倒裝的句型結構的主語必須是名詞,如果主語是人稱代詞則不能完全倒裝。例如:Here he comes. Away they went.

            二、倒裝句之部分倒裝

            部分倒裝是指將謂語的一部分如助動詞或情態倒裝至主語之前。如果句中的謂語沒有助動詞或情態動詞,則需添加助動詞do, does或did,并將其置于主語之前。

            1)句首為否定或半否定的詞語,如no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until… 等。

            Never have I seen such a performance.

            Nowhere will you find the answer to this question.

            Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room.

            當Not until引出主從復合句,主句倒裝,從句不倒裝。

            注意: 如否定詞不在句首不倒裝。

            I have never seen such a performance.

            The mother didn‘t leave the room until the child fell asleep.

            典型例題

            1)Why can‘t I smoke here? At no time___ in the meeting-room.

            A. is smoking permitted  B. smoking is permitted

            C. smoking is it permitted D. does smoking permit

            答案A. 這是一個倒裝問題。當否定詞語置于句首以表示強調時,其句中的主謂須用倒裝結構。 這些否定詞包括no, little, hardly, seldom, never, not only, not until等。本題的正常語序是 Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time.

            2)Not until the early years of the 19th century ___ what heat is.

            A. man did know  B. man know  C. didn‘t man know  D. did man know

            答案D.  看到Not until…的句型,我們知道為一倒裝句,答案在C,D 中選一個。改寫為正常語序為, Man did not know what heat is until the early years of the 19th. 現在將not提前,后面就不能再用否定了,否則意思就變了。

            三、以否定詞開頭作部分倒裝

            如 Not only…but also, Hardly/Scarcely…when, No sooner… than

            Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender.

            Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her.

            No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her.

            典型例題

            No sooner___ than it began to rain heavily.

            A. the game began      B. has the game begun

            C. did the game begin    D. had the game begun

            答案D. 以具有否定意義的副詞放在句首時,一般采用倒裝句(謂語前置)。這類表示否定意義的詞有never, seldom, scarcely, little, few, not, hardly, 以及not only…but (also), no sooner…than, hardly… when scarcely… when 等等。

            注意:只有當Not only… but also連接兩個分句時,才在第一個分句用倒裝結構。如果置于句首的Not only… but also僅連接兩個并列詞語,不可用倒裝結構。

            Not only you but also I am fond of music.

            四、so, neither, nor作部分倒裝

            表示“也”、“也不” 的句子要部分倒裝。

            Tom can speak French. So can Jack.

            If you won‘t go, neither will I.

            典型例題

            -Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother?

            -I don‘t know, _____.

            A. nor don‘t I care  B. nor do I care  C. I don’t care neither  D. I don‘t care also

            答案:B. nor為增補意思“也不關心”,因此句子應倒裝。A錯在用 don‘t 再次否定, C neither 用法不對且缺乏連詞。 D缺乏連詞。

            注意: 當so引出的句子用以對上文內容加以證實或肯定時,不可用倒裝結構。意為“的確如此”。

            Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did.

            -It‘s raining hard.   -So it is.

            五、only在句首要倒裝的情況

            Only in this way, can you learn English well.

            Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting.

            如果句子為主從復合句,則主句倒裝,從句不倒裝

            Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed.

            六、as, though 引導的倒裝句

            as / though引導的讓步從句必須將表語或狀語提前 (形容詞, 副詞, 分詞, 實義動詞提前)。

            注意:

            1)句首名詞不能帶任何冠詞。

            2)句首是實義動詞, 其他助動詞放在主語后。如果實義動詞有賓語和狀語,  隨實義動詞一起放在主語之前。

            Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.

            注意:

            讓步狀語從句中,有though,although時,后面的主句不能有but,但是 though 和yet可連用。

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